Speech improvements were in the form of both objective and subjective measures

Six subjects were tested with the combination of lengthened Ti (lengthened by 17 to 25% of the cycle) and low PEEP (5 to 10 cm H2O). For subjects tidal volume (Vt) was also reduced slightly (by 0.1 to 0.2 L) because they commented that the pressure felt too high.

These combined adjustments resulted in shorter pause time (mean, — 36%), longer speaking time (mean, + 55%), and more syllables per breath (mean, + 61%). The increase in syllable production occurred during both the inspiratory phase (mean, + 45%) and expiratory phase (mean, + 96%) of the ventilator cycle in all subjects Canadian Pharmacy viagra. Potential speaking time increased by about the same amount as actual speaking time (mean, + 52%). Articulation rate, sound pressure level, and peak Pt did not change. Breathing frequency did not change significantly; however, the two subjects who actively triggered the ventilator reduced their breathing frequency with the combined adjustments. Listeners rated speech as better than usual for all subjects (this was statistically significant). Their descriptors indicated improvements in timing (pause time, speaking time), loudness (overall loudness, loudness variation), voice quality (overall voice quality, voice quality variation), and articulation (articulation precision). Subjects rated their speech and breathing as better (four subjects) or the same (two subjects) as usual.

Speech improvements were in the form of both objective and subjective measures. Specific improvements were shorter pauses, more speech produced during inspiration and expiration, and listener ratings reflecting improvements in several perceptual dimensions.

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High PEEP (15 cm H2O) was tested in three subjects who used one-way valves with positive-pressure ventilation. Objective measures obtained with high PEEP were nearly identical to those for the one-way valve in all subjects. Listeners tended to rate speech with high PEEP as better than with the one-way valve, though this was not statistically significant. The subjects rated their speech and breathing as the same as usual with high PEEP. Pt waveforms generated with high PEEP were highly similar to those generated with one-way valves.

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